Earthen architecture is one of the most original and powerful expressions of our human ability to create and build environment with nearby available resources. It includes a great variety of building types and groups, ranging from mosques, palaces and granaries to historic city centres, cultural landscapes, and archaeological sites. Its cultural importance throughout the world is evident and has led to its consideration as a common heritage of humankind, and therefore deserving protection and conservation by the international community. In 2007, 106 out of 660 cultural properties inscribed on the World Heritage List incorporate earthen structures. Thanks to the materials’ availability and economic quality, it bears great potential to contribute to poverty alleviation and sustainable development.